Effects of acupuncture on metabolic patterns
Low-frequency EA with repetitive muscle contractions activate physiological processes similar to those resulting from physical exercise. Daily low-frequency EA treatment induces weight loss and increases insulin sensitivity, reducing blood glucose and lipid levels. Repeated low-frequency EA reduces food intake and body weight, possibly by increasing leptin levels. Low-frequency EA also stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle independently of insulin and increases the insulin sensitivity of glucose transport in rats.
Effect of acupuncture on ovulation
Several clinical studies demonstrate that low-frequency EA affects endocrine, neuroendocrine and metabolic disturbances in PCOS without any negative side-effects. Indeed, EA can be a suitable alternative or complement to pharmacological induction of ovulation. However, controlled randomised studies are required to verify these results. None of these studies has revealed the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of EA.